Thursday, January 19, 2017

Mapping Slavery in Indian Territory

I am happy to share something that education has never before reflected. I am happy to introduce the first map reflecting the places in Indian Territory black men, women and children were enslaved.

Actual Interactive Map Can Be Accessed HERE.

For over 150 years, countless maps have omitted the presence of slavery in Indian Territory and never have maps been shown to reflect the geographic distribution of slaves within the Five Civilized Tribes. Those tribes specifically are the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole Nations. Because slavery is not widely studied west of Arkansas, maps have never reflected this history.

Until now.

Background
When I see historic maps that reflect slavery in North America, I cannot help but stare at the blank spake right above Texas when I see those maps. But, having ancestors who come from what is now Oklahoma, and knowing that they were enslaved in Indian Territory, I stare at that space, because I know that there were people enslaved in that place, and among them were my own ancestors living in the Choctaw Nation. However, in most texts, the maps always reflect the lands just north of Texas as being a land where slavery was not present. I cannot help but see those historical maps and stare that the big hole in the middle. The "big hole" is the space right above Texas.


Map Showing the Distribution of the Slave Population

of the Southern States of the United States Compiled from the Census of 1860
Washington September, 1861
Map accessed from Mapping the Nation


The map above is the "MASTER" of slavery maps. It was created in 1861 by the US Coastal Survey and was compiled from census data. It is also the map that was presented to President Lincoln to illustrated the prevalence of slavery in the southern states. (A zoom-able version of this map can be found HERE.)

There are other maps such as the one below that fall into the category of "historical geography" that were used to share a policy and where the effects of that policy prevailed. But again, in that map one sees Arkansas, then a vertical line skirting around Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) and into Texas. The map was used to show the "curse of slavery". But the "curse" did extend west, directly into Indian Territory.

Accessed from Mapping the Nation
Map by John F. Smith, in the Library of Congress "Historical Geography" Map, 1888


Now it can be said that the number of enslaved people in Indian Territory was not as high as it was in states like Mississippi, or Alabama. And one might be able to say that the old maps are not wholly inaccurate since there may have been less than 10 percent of the total population was enslaved in Indian Territory. However--that percentage, also cannot be proven, because only free whites and free blacks were recorded in Indian Territory in the 1860 population census. And the Indian population was not tabulated at all in the regular population census at that time. But--there was a census made of the enslaved population--and the slave holders--the Indian slaveholders were listed along with the people whom they enslaved. And the communities were they lived are shown. They were included as part of the Arkansas Slave schedules.

The Arkansas Slave schedule is found on National Archive microfilm population M653 Roll 54. All of the Arkansas counties are listed on the reel of microfilm. Following Yell county, the list of enslaved people in Indian Territory begins.

There are 865 images on that reel of microfilm. On that record, there were slave holders such as Cherokee Chief John Ross, or Choctaw leader Robert Jones who owned hundreds of Black people as slaves.



Yet countless maps omit the presence of slavery in Indian Territory and never have maps been shown reflecting the geographic distribution of slaves within the Five Civilized Tribes. Those tribes specifically are the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole Nations. Maps have never reflected this in textbooks. Until now.

For the most part, it is not generally taught that slavery even occurred in Indian Territory. That oversight has made the omission of slavery in the Territory easy to overlook in the American historical narrative. However, slavery did occur in the territory, and it was real, it was painful, and there were runaways, slave uprisings, and efforts among the enslaved to become free from bondage. Therefore, the more I studied maps and records, the more I saw a need to see a map reflecting the land of my own ancestors--the enslaved people of Indian Territory.

Finally thanks to the technology of Google Maps, and using the 1860 slave schedule, a new map reflecting slavery in Indian Territory has been made.

The New Map This new map has made a part of the interactive map on the website, "Mapping the Freedmen's Bureau." By using Google maps, the markers are placed to coincide with the communities that were clearly defined in the 1860 slave schedule. The markers are also placed accurately with the appropriate geographic coordinates. By using Google Maps the markers reflect the actual community where the enslaved families were held. In the years after freedom, many people remained in the same communities especially during the first  years of freedom, so this map also represents these families in both slavery and freedom. And there was an extremely large contraband camp at Fort Gibson, and that encampment site is also marked on the map.

Some Indian tribal Freedmen were even captured in the collection of records from the Freedmen's Bureau. Many lived close to the Arkansas border and used the services of the Bureau in nearby Arkansas. The Fort Smith Bureau reflected Cherokee citizens appealing to the Freedmen's Bureau for help.

Contents of the map
For this map, the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw nations are more thoroughly reflected. That is because there was a more thorough assessment of the slave holders of the nation. In the Creek Nation, the slave holders and their slaves were recorded, but the different tribal towns were not indicated on the slave schedule, as the slave schedule would simple describe the residence as "Creek Nation, West of Arkansas." As a result a single marker was placed marking Okmulgee the capital of the Creek Nation. Similarly, for the Seminole nation. Seminole leaders such as John Jumper,  Billy Bowlegs and others were also slave holders, but the enumerator did not go into Seminole country, and thus a single marker is placed over Wewoka, the capital of the Seminole Nation. When and should a better site with a link appear, additional markers will be added for those two communities.

When Using the Map
The map provides a direct link to the Internet Archive where one will find the 1860 slave schedule reflecting the people enslaved in Indian Territory communities. (This includes a direct link to the Creek Nation pages as well.) By hovering the mouse or cursor over a marker, a small pop-up window will appear, and that window will contain a link to the exact pages on the Internet Archive that contain the images of the slave schedule reflecting Indian Territory. By clicking on that pop up, the user will find the direct link in the text about the site description.

About the Slave Record
It is noted that the 1860 slave schedule contains the name of the slave holder and the number, gender, and complexion of the enslaved population kept in bondage. The slave schedule can be used in a community study, or an analysis of the age, gender breakdown, and status-whether runaway or still physically held. Though names of the enslaved were not recorded, the record still provides useful data, when compiling the family narrative particularly whether they were part of a large estate, or a small family held by one person.

In the Cherokee Nation the districts represented are:
Canadian
Delaware
Flint
Going Snake
Illinois
Cooweescoowee (Kooweeskoowee)
Saline
Sequoyah
Talequah

In the Choctaw Nation, the districts represented are:
Atoka
Blue
Botuklo
Cedar
Cole
Eagle
Gains
Kiamitia
Red River
Skullyville
Sugar Loaf
Towson

In the Chickasaw Nation, the districts represented are:
Panola
Pickens
Pontotoc
Tishomingo

In the Creek Nation, the area represented is:
Okmulgee

In the Seminole Nation, the area represented is:
Wewoka

This is the first time that slavery has been "mapped" for Indian Territory, and hopefully in the future, a more thorough representation of the heartbreaking institution of slavery will be shown. Thanks to Google maps, this story can now more accurately be told, and reflected.


Monday, January 2, 2017

If Only We Could See Their Names - Part 1


When searching for enslaved ancestors, the first major frustration comes for the first time researcher, when he or she encounters the slave schedule in the 1860 and 1850 census for the first time. The shock to the researcher is that the "slave census" does not contain the names of the slaves. Only the name of the slave holder is recorded. That is also the first time that one encounters the reality of slaver and its horror---the ancestors were not considered to be people worthy of names. They were simply property and their presence as enslaved people only meant that they would be counted, just as cattle, horses, and other livestock.

And usually upon that discovery, the researcher heaves a very heavy sigh, exclaiming, "if only we knew their names."

And so it goes. But several years ago, while in Chicago attending a conference, I met Belzora Cheatham who was anxious to share a find! One line of her family is from Bowie County Texas and she had just found them on the 1850 slave schedule. With their names!

The document was one of those amazing errors in the census that many whose ancestors were enslaved, wish we could find. The error was a wonderful one---the enumerator wrote the names of the enslaved people--all of them!

I have thought of Ms. Cheatham many times over the years and several years ago, I looked at the records myself, and wrote a piece about them. I recently looked at that small collection of records from District 8 of Bowie County, and decided to write another article, because of its significance.

We recently celebrated the indexing of the Freedmen's Bureau records and how important we can now look at the years between 1865 and 1870 and learn about our ancestors in the early days of freedom. But this slave schedule is equally significant--although it reflects a tiny community---this is 15 years before freedom, and this provides a rare glimpse at people still enslaved, and their names can be called.

So many of us find the slave schedules for the first time, and then sigh in frustration noting that only the names of the slave holders are recorded. For those who survived enslavement and who lived to see freedom--it would be 20 years before their names would be in print again on a census. And for some--who did live to be free, this is the only piece of evidence that they ever lived.

A few years ago I wrote a small article about this collection, but I only included a few images. But upon reflection of the fact that for some--their names would never appear in a census as free people, and in light of our focus on celebrating everyone, enslaved and free, I have decided to include this larger article and share all 23 of the pages. So therefore, I am submitting this two-part piece reflecting the names of the enslaved population, sharing the images themselves. The district was not a large one, and therefore they deserve to be seen, by all.

The images reflect District 8, of Bowie County, Texas. There are only 23 pages reflected in this slave schedule, and all will be shared on this blog. The first 12 are shared below. (Part 2 will reflect the remaining pages.)


1850 Slave Schedule
Bowie County, Texas, District 8
Ancestry.com. 1850 U.S. Federal Census - Slave Schedules [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004.
Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Seventh Census of the United States, 1850. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1850. M432










It is clear upon looking at the images that some severe water damage occurred on the pages of the census book. This is most unfortunate, as in many of the pages,the names have simply vanished with the dampness, dissolving the lettering.







As one moves through the pages some of the water damage appears to lessen. And in some places on the page the names of the enslaved people can be read through the water stains. 



Though the water stains are still there, hopefully others new to the process will still look at the names of these people who lived during a trying time. My hope is that most did survive and live to breathe the air of freedom.

End of Part 1


Tuesday, November 8, 2016

Honoring the Ancestral Voters and Committing to Voting Today

Source of Image: AfroTexan

Did my ancestor's vote? I have evidence that many of them did, and so did many freed people take advantage of their ability to participate in a process denied to them for centuries.

Well, one of the treasure in researching my Bass family is that of an 1867 voting record, of Uncle Napier Bass. He is the first of many cousins bearing his name. He was taken to Texas in 1860 from Elkton Tennessee. He remained there after freedom, and made Fayette County Texas his home. His name appears on a Voter Registration document from the county that was made in 1867. His name on this record reflects the first time an ancestor's name appears on a record reflecting his having been a voter. It is therfore, fitting that on election day that I share this image.


The oldest document reflecting one of my ancestors as a registered voter.

Texas, Voter Registration Lists, 1867-1869 Fayette County
Image Source: 1867 Voter Registration Lists. Microfilm, 12 rolls.
Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin, Texas.
Accessed from Ancestry.

Having cast my ballot this morning, I feel a remarkable sense of relief. So glad that what has been an 18 month process with early televised debates, I am so happy that it is finally coming to an end. And this year's process has been remarkably disturbing with one candidate offending almost every segment of society. The candidate of hate (who shall not be named) has made this a frightening time for me and for those whom I love to be in this country, has made me fearful of the future. As a person of color the hateful tone of this election season and the support of the candidate of hate, reflects widespread support for a bigoted man. And more disturbing has been to see the support even coming from those who once had my respect, and this has been most unsettling. I know now that I might not be safe around them. I shall have to note more closely my movements and associations in the future.

Harper's Weekly, November 16, 1867 p. 1
Sketch by A. R. Waud


However today, after casting my ballot, I feel a sense of relief and calm.

The long lines this morning were comforting to see. Heavy voting suggests that the people have a voice and they are determined to see that some good things will happen and that some things will not happen. And I am grateful for those leaders of the past that made the past two elections possible.


As many of my friends and relatives in the south only got to vote in the 1960s, I also think of the many who were terrorized, beaten, and killed for simply trying to vote. They are honored every time that I vote, and I am humbled when I think of them.

And as a woman, I am also humbled. I think of the many who fought for voting rights for many years, and who also suffered. Women like Fannie Lou Hamer, endured beatings and who fought nevertheless for voting rights in Mississippi. She dared to tell her story to all in 1968.  Yet, many who saw her speak then, still defend their support of a hate filled candidate (who shall not be named) who wishes to go back to the "great days" that were not so great for people of color, when Fannie would be beaten for her work.

Fannie Lou Hamer at the Democratic Convention in 1968

And I think of the women also who further back in time fought and marched so that women could also vote. The women were truly souls of courage and grace, deserving our respect and honor. From the unknown suffragettes such as Hattie Redmond of Oregon to the well known Susan B. Anthony, I was truly honored to vote today.

Lesser known Hattie Redmon, suffragette in Oregon
Source of Image: Oregon Encyclopedia


And the most moving image of the day has been watching a live broadcast of people in Rochester New York, visiting the grave of Susan B. Anthony. On a day in which a woman's name is on the ballot for president, it is fitting that on a day when history is being made, to see people visiting her grave, and thanking her for her work. This has truly moved me.
Image from Live Feed of Visitors to Susan B. Anthony Grave
(Courtesy of WROC-TV. Rochester NY)

I reflect and know that recent efforts by an obstructionist Congress to suppress the 14th Amendment and the 15th Amendment have been disheartening to say the least and destructive to the country, and their efforts have instilled fear in my heart. My sense of safety and well being have been affected by such blatant racism and hatred being shown by elected leaders.

But for some reason, I now have a feeling now of optimism and that the nation has seen the evil emanating through endorsement of hate coming forth, and I pray that they will stop the descent and rise.

The long lines at the polls today told me that the suffering of the 1960s were not in vain. The long lines told me that when we speak through our vote, we shine, and we can win.

What an awesome power lies within one's ability to vote. I feel therefore inspired to share a few images from the past of people once denied, finally exercising this incredible task of voting. It is a right and a responsibility to make a nation better. And it is a responsibility to keep it from back-sliding into a era of blind intolerance, bigotry and racial superiority.

The heinousness of it all can and will be blocked by the actions of a people who will not allow it to happen.


I care, therefore I vote!

Friday, September 9, 2016

New Season, New Ideas, New Directions: Black Pro Gen


Black Pro Gen LIVE New Features

Well a new season is here, and new ideas that have been simmering are arising. So thrilled to share with everyone the new season and some new strategies to work with beginning genealogists and seasoned ones to find the ancestors and break through the challenges we call "brick walls."

Black Pro Gen is a community of African American Professional Genealogists who work together, sharing ideas and strategies. There are quite a few of us out there ready to assist others, and to share ideas with each other as well.

For the past year, there have been regular Black Pro Gen Hangouts - which are live discussions viewed by an audience listening to a fascinating dialogue about research strategies. If you missed them, you can find them on YouTube. Each Hangout session is devoted to a theme---some are focused on various states and resources, and other new features.

As Google is making changes, the Hangouts are now to be known at LIVE, and Black Pro Gen is joining the fun. But in addition to that some new features will be added to the Black Pro Gen events.

ASK MARIAH

Do you have a genealogy brick wall? Is there something that you can't figure out from your many records? Or are you looking for a suggestion on where to go next with your research? If this description fits  you, then you may get some help if you "Ask Mariah". This is a new feature that will be part of Black Pro Gen LIVE. Throughout the year, this group of researchers, gather online to discuss projects, or to explore a common topic and to offer suggestions and strategies to each other. Simply submit your questions to me@whoisnickasmith.com, or to AngelaW859@aol.com, and we will answer them on Black Pro Gen LIVE! Put Ask Mariah in the subject line.

ANCESTRY MAKERS

How can you as a regular person have your genealogy done by professionals? Well Black Pro Gen, will have your genealogy done by professionals free of charge. If you are selected, you only have to be a guest on the BlackProGen Hangout, and find out the results of their research conducted for you. Why not let the team of professional genealogists on Black Pro Gen LIVE do the work? If your project is selected, the reveal will be made to you and your family LIVE online in one of the Black Pro Gen Hangouts. If this interests you, send an email to Nicka Smith and she will follow up with you about your research interest.

Both services are offered for free.

Here are members of the BlackProGen community and where you can find their blogs and websites:

Name:                              Website

Bernice A. Bennett           Research at the National Archives and Beyond

Linda Buggs Simms         Mississippi Rooted

Toni Carrier                       Low Country Africana

Melvin Collier                   Mississippi to Africa, Roots Revealed

Vicky Daviss-Mitchell       Mariah's Zepher

Ellen Fernandez-Sacco     Babilonia Family History

George Geder                    Geder Writes

Taneya Koonce                Taneya's Genealogy Blog

True Lewis                       Notes to Myself

James Morgan III             Afr. American Fraternal and Benevolent Society History

Shelley Murphy               Family Tree Girl

Drusilla Pair                     Find Your Folks

Renate Yarborough-Sanders  Into The Light

Angela Walton-Raji         African Roots Podcast, My Ancestor's Name, African-NatAm.

Nicka Smith                     Who is Nicka Smith,  Atlas Family

Teresa Vega                      Radiant Roots, Boricua Branches

Next year promises to be an exciting year and we hope that you will join all of us!

New Season, New Ideas, New Directions: Black Pro Gen


Black Pro Gen LIVE New Features

Well a new season is here, and new ideas that have been simmering are arising. So thrilled to share with everyone the new season and some new strategies to work with beginning genealogists and seasoned ones to find the ancestors and break through the challenges we call "brick walls."

Black Pro Gen is a community of African American Professional Genealogists who work together, sharing ideas and strategies. There are quite a few of us out there ready to assist others, and to share ideas with each other as well.

For the past year, there have been regular Black Pro Gen Hangouts - which are live discussions viewed by an audience listening to a fascinating dialogue about research strategies. If you missed them, you can find them on YouTube. Each Hangout session is devoted to a theme---some are focused on various states and resources, and other new features.

As Google is making changes, the Hangouts are now to be known at LIVE, and Black Pro Gen is joining the fun. But in addition to that some new features will be added to the Black Pro Gen events.

ASK MARIAH

Do you have a genealogy brick wall? Is there something that you can't figure out from your many records? Or are you looking for a suggestion on where to go next with your research? If this description fits  you, then you may get some help if you "Ask Mariah". This is a new feature that will be part of Black Pro Gen LIVE. Throughout the year, this group of researchers, gather online to discuss projects, or to explore a common topic and to offer suggestions and strategies to each other. Simply submit your questions to me@whoisnickasmith.com, or to AngelaW859@aol.com, and we will answer them on Black Pro Gen LIVE! Put Ask Mariah in the subject line.

ANCESTRY MAKERS

How can you as a regular person have your genealogy done by professionals? Well Black Pro Gen, will have your genealogy done by professionals free of charge. If you are selected, you only have to be a guest on the BlackProGen Hangout, and find out the results of their research conducted for you. Why not let the team of professional genealogists on Black Pro Gen LIVE do the work? If your project is selected, the reveal will be made to you and your family LIVE online in one of the Black Pro Gen Hangouts. If this interests you, send an email to Nicka Smith and she will follow up with you about your research interest.

Both services are offered for free.

Here are members of the BlackProGen community and where you can find their blogs and websites:

Name:                              Website

Bernice A. Bennett           Research at the National Archives and Beyond

Linda Buggs Simms         Mississippi Rooted

Toni Carrier                       Low Country Africana

Melvin Collier                   Mississippi to Africa, Roots Revealed

Vicky Daviss-Mitchell       Mariah's Zepher

Ellen Fernandez-Sacco     Babilonia Family History

George Geder                    Geder Writes

Taneya Koonce                Taneya's Genealogy Blog

True Lewis                       Notes to Myself

James Morgan III             Afr. American Fraternal and Benevolent Society History

Shelley Murphy               Family Tree Girl

Drusilla Pair                     Find Your Folks

Angela Walton-Raji         African Roots Podcast, My Ancestor's Name, African-NatAm.

Nicka Smith                     Who is Nicka Smith,  Atlas Family

Teresa Vega                      Radiant Roots, Boricua Branches

Next year promises to be an exciting year and we hope that you will join all of us!

New Season, New Ideas, New Directions: Black Pro Gen


Black Pro Gen LIVE New Features

Well a new season is here, and new ideas that have been simmering are arising. So thrilled to share with everyone the new season and some new strategies to work with beginning genealogists and seasoned ones to find the ancestors and break through the challenges we call "brick walls."

Black Pro Gen is a community of African American Professional Genealogists who work together, sharing ideas and strategies. There are quite a few of us out there ready to assist others, and to share ideas with each other as well.

For the past year, there have been regular Black Pro Gen Hangouts - which are live discussions viewed by an audience listening to a fascinating dialogue about research strategies. If you missed them, you can find them on YouTube. Each Hangout session is devoted to a theme---some are focused on various states and resources, and other new features.

As Google is making changes, the Hangouts are now to be known at LIVE, and Black Pro Gen is joining the fun. But in addition to that some new features will be added to the Black Pro Gen events.

ASK MARIAH

Do you have a genealogy brick wall? Is there something that you can't figure out from your many records? Or are you looking for a suggestion on where to go next with your research? If this description fits  you, then you may get some help if you "Ask Mariah". This is a new feature that will be part of Black Pro Gen LIVE. Throughout the year, this group of researchers, gather online to discuss projects, or to explore a common topic and to offer suggestions and strategies to each other. Simply submit your questions to me@whoisnickasmith.com, or to AngelaW859@aol.com, and we will answer them on Black Pro Gen LIVE! Put Ask Mariah in the subject line.

ANCESTRY MAKERS

How can you as a regular person have your genealogy done by professionals? Well Black Pro Gen, will have your genealogy done by professionals free of charge. If you are selected, you only have to be a guest on the BlackProGen Hangout, and find out the results of their research conducted for you. Why not let the team of professional genealogists on Black Pro Gen LIVE do the work? If your project is selected, the reveal will be made to you and your family LIVE online in one of the Black Pro Gen Hangouts. If this interests you, send an email to Nicka Smith and she will follow up with you about your research interest.

Both services are offered for free.

Here are members of the BlackProGen community and where you can find their blogs and websites:

Name:                              Website

Bernice A. Bennett           Research at the National Archives and Beyond

Linda Buggs Simms         Mississippi Rooted

Melvin Collier                   Mississippi to Africa, Roots Revealed

Vicky Daviss-Mitchell       Mariah's Zepher

Ellen Fernandez-Sacco     Babilonia Family History

George Geder                    Geder Writes

Taneya Koonce                Taneya's Genealogy Blog

True Lewis                       Notes to Myself

James Morgan III             Afr. American Fraternal and Benevolent Society History

Shelley Murphy               Family Tree Girl

Drusilla Pair                     Find Your Folks

Angela Walton-Raji         African Roots Podcast, My Ancestor's Name, African-NatAm.

Nicka Smith                     Who is Nicka Smith,  Atlas Family

Teresa Vega                      Radiant Roots, Boricua Branches

Next year promises to be an exciting year and we hope that you will join all of us!

New Season, New Ideas, New Directions: Black Pro Gen


Black Pro Gen LIVE New Features

Well a new season is here, and new ideas that have been simmering are arising. So thrilled to share with everyone the new season and some new strategies to work with beginning genealogists and seasoned ones to find the ancestors and break through the challenges we call "brick walls."

Black Pro Gen is a community of African American Professional Genealogists who work together, sharing ideas and strategies. There are quite a few of us out there ready to assist others, and to share ideas with each other as well.

For the past year, there have been regular Black Pro Gen Hangouts - which are live discussions viewed by an audience listening to a fascinating dialogue about research strategies. If you missed them, you can find them on YouTube. Each Hangout session is devoted to a theme---some are focused on various states and resources, and other new features.

As Google is making changes, the Hangouts are now to be known at LIVE, and Black Pro Gen is joining the fun. But in addition to that some new features will be added to the Black Pro Gen events.

ASK MARIAH

Do you have a genealogy brick wall? Is there something that you can't figure out from your many records? Or are you looking for a suggestion on where to go next with your research? If this description fits  you, then you may get some help if you "Ask Mariah". This is a new feature that will be part of Black Pro Gen LIVE. Throughout the year, this group of researchers, gather online to discuss projects, or to explore a common topic and to offer suggestions and strategies to each other. Simply submit your questions to me@whoisnickasmith.com, or to AngelaW859@aol.com, and we will answer them on Black Pro Gen LIVE! Put Ask Mariah in the subject line.

ANCESTRY MAKERS

How can you as a regular person have your genealogy done by professionals? Well Black Pro Gen, will have your genealogy done by professionals free of charge. If you are selected, you only have to be a guest on the BlackProGen Hangout, and find out the results of their research conducted for you. Why not let the team of professional genealogists on Black Pro Gen LIVE do the work? If your project is selected, the reveal will be made to you and your family LIVE online in one of the Black Pro Gen Hangouts. If this interests you, send an email to Nicka Smith and she will follow up with you about your research interest.

Both services are offered for free.

Here are members of the BlackProGen community and where you can find their blogs and websites:

Name:                              Website

Bernice A. Bennett           Research at the National Archives and Beyond

Linda Buggs Simms         Mississippi Rooted

Melvin Collier                   Mississippi to Africa, Roots Revealed

Vicky Daviss-Mitchell       Mariah's Zepher

Ellen Fernandez-Sacco     Babilonia Family History

George Geder                    Geder Writes

Taneya Koonce                Taneya's Genealogy Blog

James Morgan III             Afr. American Fraternal and Benevolent Society History

Shelley Murphy               Family Tree Girl

Drusilla Pair                     Find Your Folks

Angela Walton-Raji         African Roots Podcast, My Ancestor's Name, African-NatAm.

Nicka Smith                     Who is Nicka Smith,  Atlas Family

Teresa Vega                      Radiant Roots, Boricua Branches

Next year promises to be an exciting year and we hope that you will join all of us!